Welcome to FSN, A core group of IAPEN

The Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (IAPEN) is an organization in the field of parenteral and enteral nutrition and promotes basic research, clinical research, advanced education, organization of consensus statements about clinical care and quality control.

Fitness, Sports and Nutrition (FSN), India is a core group of IAPEN, along with Hospital Nutrition Steering Committee (HSNC) and Malnutrition Steering Committee (MSG).

Our Aim

"Through partnerships with the public, private, and non-profit sectors, the FSN (Fitness, Sports & Nutrition) group promotes programs and initiatives that motivate people of all ages, backgrounds, and abilities to lead active, healthy lives"

Adopted from 'President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition, USA (http://www.fitness.gov). 

Our Objectives

FNS aims to provide a scientific but easily understood overview of aspects related to nutrition and physical activity, especially of people involved in regular training with the goal to improve intensive sports performance. FSN aims to achieve a maximal degree of scientific consensus in the area of Fitness and Sports Nutrition Research by promoting various activities like awareness camps, fitness workshops etc.

FSN focus on prevention rather than treatment of various health problems by promoting productive lifestyles.

FSN offers Certificate Course in Sports Nutrition - Download Information Booklet for more information. 



Physical Activity and Indian Guidelines




About Development of Physical Activity Guidelines for Indians
 
Under the esteemed guidance of Padma Shri Dr. Anoop Misra, Director and Head, Department of Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Fortis Flt. Lt. Rajan Dhall Hospital, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi 110070, India, Director, National Foundation for Diabetes, Obesity, and Cholesterol Disorders (N-DOC), New Delhi, India, and Director, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Diabetes Foundation (India), New Delhi, India and his team, an attempt was  made to develop Physical Activity Guidelines for Indian Population. The guidelines were published in Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics, 2012 Jan;, Volume 14, Issue 1, Page No. 83-98.

Download guidelines

Team Members- Physical Activity Consensus Group

Conceptualization, Execution and Steering Committee: Anoop Misra, Priyanka Nigam, Andrew P Hills, Davinder S Chadha.

Core Faculty and Expert Panelists: Anoop Misra, Priyanka Nigam, Andrew P Hills, Davinder S Chadha.
Lead Groups for Manuscript Preparation: Anoop Misra, Priyanka Nigam, Andrew P Hills, Davinder S Chadha, Vineeta Sharma, KK Deepak, Naval K Vikram, Shashank Joshi, Ashish Chauchan, Kumud Khanna, Rekha Sharma, Kanchan Mittal , Santosh Jain Passi, Veenu Seth , Seema Puri , Ratna Devi, AP Dubey, Sunita Gupta

Other Participating Faculty**: 

National: A P Dubey, A Saxena, Abha Saxena, Anand N. Malaviya*, Anju Ghei, Anura Kurpad* , Ashish Chauchan, Ashok Kumar Duggal, Ashok Trisal*, C S Pandav, Chandra Sekhar, D D Arora, Deeksha Kapur, Dheeraj Bhatia, G M Mathur, G M Singh, G R Sridhar*, Isha Kashiva, J M Bahnot, Jagmeet Madan*, Jasmin Kaur, Jeena Mathew, Jharna das Gupta, K K Pant, K K Shukla, Kanchan Mittal, Kanika Kapoor, Kaushal Madan, Kumud Khanna, Lokesh Pant, Lokesh Pant, M N Misra, Mala Munral, Manu Chaudhary, Md Khurshid, Meenakshi Sharma, Meeta Mathur, Mekhala Chandra, Nammita Bhatia, Naresh Chawla, Naval K Vikram, Neelanjana Singh, Neha Gupta, Nidhi Kaushik, Nidhi Sharma, Nikhil Gupta, P H Mishra, Padam Singh, Pooja Puri, Priyali Shah, Puneet Misra, R C Lall, Rakesh Parikh*, Ramesh Mohan, Ratna Devi, Ravi Upadhaya, Ritesh Gupta, Ritu Jain, Ruchika Guglani, S K Agarwal, Santosh J Passi, Sarswati Sarkar, Satinath Mukhopadhyay*, Seema Puri, Seema Gulati, Shashi P Gupta, Shashank Joshi*, Sheel Nuna, Shelza Saluja, Shilpa Joshi*, Shubhra Atrey, Shuchee Madhusudan, Smita Dixit, Sonal Gupta, Srikant Sharma, Subir Majumdar, Sunita Gupta, Suruchi Singh, Surya P Bhatt, Susan L Colles, Swat Bharadwaj, Veenu Seth, Vidya.

International*: Abdul Hamid Zargar, Ajay Sood, Anil Bhoraskar, Anuj Bhargava, Anushka Patel, Deepa Vasudevan, Enas Enas, Jamal Ahmad, Jiten Vora, Kris Vijay, Mario Soares, Ranjita Misra, Undurti N Das, Nikhil Dhurandhar, Nita Forouhi, Om Ganda, Prakash Deedwania, Raj Bhopal, Romesh Khardori, Subrina Jesmin, Sonia Anand, Sundar Mudaliar, Vijay Viswanathan, Vivian Fonseca.

**All names are in alphabetical order. *These individuals were not physically present but have actively contributed to the guidelines.

Represented Institutions: Science for Equity, Empowerment and Development (SEED) Division, Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India, New Delhi; Department of Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Fortis Hospital, New Delhi; Diabetes Foundation (India), New Delhi; National Foundation for Diabetes, Obesity and Cholesterol (N-DOC), New Delhi; Chronic Care Foundation, New Delhi; Command Hospital (Air Force), Bangalore; Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Australia; St. John’s Research Institute, St. John’s National Academy of Health Sciences, Bangalore; All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi; Lilavati & Bhatia Hospital, Mumbai; Nutrition Foundation of India, New Delhi; Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi; Air force Central Medical Establishment, New Delhi; Department of Nutrition, Institute of Home Economics, New Delhi; Lady Irwin College, New Delhi; Delhi Medical Association, New Delhi; Indian Medical Association, New Delhi; Indian Spinal Injury Centre, New Delhi; Sir Gangaram Hospital; New Delhi; Max healthcare hospital, New Delhi; Euphoria Foundation; Pushpawati Singhania Research Institute, New Delhi.

Physical Activity and Health

India is experiencing a rapid health transition, with large and rising burdens of chronic diseases, which are estimated to account for 53% of all deaths and 44% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost in 2005. Earlier estimates, from the Global Burden of Disease Study, projected that the number of deathsattributable to chronic diseases would rise from 3·78 million in 1990 (40·4% of all deaths) to 7·63 million in 2020 (66·7% of all deaths).
Many of these deaths occur at relatively early ages. Compared with all other countries, India suffers the highest loss in potentially productive years of life, due to deaths from cardiovascular disease in people aged 35–64 years (9·2 million years lost in 2000). By 2030, this loss is expected to rise to 17·9 million years—940% greater than the corresponding loss in the USA, which has a population a third the size of India’s.

Physical inactivity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and other diseases. Interventions using physical activity can help to reduce cardiovascular risk factors, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, and symptoms of depression. Such interventions can also improve quality of life, which is an important predictor of physical functioning among older age groups.
Your risk of developing coronary heart disease, such as angina or a heart attack, is much reduced if you are regularly physically active. Inactive people have almost double the risk of having a heart attack compared with those who are regularly physically active.

If you already have heart disease, regular physical activity is usually advised as an important way to help prevent your heart disease from getting worse. Special rehabilitation physical activity programmes exist if you have had a heart attack or have another heart problem. These are supervised by physical activity specialists who can help you do physical activity safely.
Stroke

Physically active people are less likely to have a stroke. One study found that women aged 45 and older who walk briskly (at least three miles per hour), or who walk for more than two hours a week, reduce their risk of stroke by a third compared with less active women.

Regular physical activity has been shown to raise levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. This is good cholesterol because it may actually help to protect against cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease). HDL cholesterol seems to help prevent patches of atheroma forming. These are like small fatty lumps that develop within the inside lining of arteries (blood vessels) and are involved in the development of cardiovascular disease.

Regular physical activity can help to lower your blood pressure levels if you have high blood pressure. It can also help to prevent high blood pressure from developing. High blood pressure is one of the risk factors for heart disease and stroke.

If you are regularly physically active then you have a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes than inactive people. The greater the amount of physical activity that you do, the lower your risk of developing type 2 diabetes. If you have been diagnosed with impaired glucose tolerance (prediabetes), regular physical activity can help to prevent this from developing into diabetes. Also, if you already have type 2 diabetes, regular physical activity can help improve the control of your diabetes.

Physical activity helps you to burn off excess fat. Regular physical activity combined with a healthy diet is the best way of losing weight, and keeping that weight off.

Regular weight-bearing physical activity can also help to prevent osteoporosis (thinning of the bones). The pulling and tugging on your bones by your muscles during exercise stimulates bone-making cells, which strengthens your bones. If your bones are stronger, you have a reduced risk of breaking your bones when you are older. (Weight-bearing physical activity means physical activity where your feet and legs bear your body's weight, such as brisk walking, aerobics, dancing, running, etc.)

Physical activity has also been shown to help treat osteoarthritis and lower back pain in some people.

Regular physical activity can help to reduce your chance of developing cancer. It roughly halves your chance of developing cancer of the colon (bowel cancer). Breast cancer is also less common in women who are regularly physically active.

Healthy Food Benifits

Eating healthy foods provides health benefits – people who eat more vegetables and fruits as part of an overall healthy diet are likely to have a reduced risk of some chronic diseases. Vegetables provide nutrients vital for health and maintenance of your body.
  • Health Benefits

    • Eating a diet rich in vegetables and fruits as part of an overall healthy diet may reduce risk for heart disease, including heart attack and stroke.
    • Eating a diet rich in some vegetables and fruits as part of an overall healthy diet may protect against certain types of cancers.
    • Diets rich in foods containing fiber, such as some vegetables and fruits, may reduce the risk of heart disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes.
    • Eating vegetables and fruits rich in potassium as part of an overall healthy diet may lower blood pressure, and may also reduce the risk of developing kidney stones and help to decrease bone loss.
    • Eating foods such as vegetables that are lower in calories per cup instead of some other higher-calorie food may be useful in helping to lower calorie intake.
  • Nutrients

    • Most vegetables are naturally low in fat and calories. None have cholesterol. (Sauces or seasonings may add fat, calories, or cholesterol.)
    • Vegetables are important sources of many nutrients, including potassium, dietary fiber, folate (folic acid), vitamin A, and vitamin C.
    • Diets rich in potassium may help to maintain healthy blood pressure. Vegetable sources of potassium include sweet potatoes, white potatoes, white beans, tomato products (paste, sauce, and juice), beet greens, soybeans, lima beans, spinach, lentils, and kidney beans.
    • Dietary fiber from vegetables, as part of an overall healthy diet, helps reduce blood cholesterol levels and may lower risk of heart disease. Fiber is important for proper bowel function. It helps reduce constipation and diverticulosis. Fiber-containing foods such as vegetables help provide a feeling of fullness with fewer calories.
    • Folate (folic acid) helps the body form red blood cells. Women of childbearing age who may become pregnant should consume adequate folate from foods, and in addition 400 mcg of synthetic folic acid from fortified foods or supplements. This reduces the risk of neural tube defects, spina bifida, and anencephaly during fetal development.
    • Vitamin A keeps eyes and skin healthy and helps to protect against infections.
    • Vitamin C helps heal cuts and wounds and keeps teeth and gums healthy. Vitamin C aids in iron absorption.

    Whole Grains

    Grains, especially whole grains, provide several health benefits. Grains provide essential nutrients and helps reduce the risk of developing chronic diseases.

    Health Benefits

    Eating a diet high in grains, especially whole grains, as an overall healthy diet may ...
    • help with weight management.
    • reduce constipation.
    • reduce the risk of coronary artery disease.
    • Grains provide many nutrients such as dietary fiber, B vitamins and minerals.
    • Dietary fiber may help reduce blood cholesterol levels and lower risk of heart disease.
    • B vitamins are essential for your metabolism by helping your body release energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates.
    • Folic acid helps the body form blood cells and is especially important for women of childbearing age who may become pregnant.
    • Magnesium from whole grains helps build bones and release energy from muscles.

Healthy Food Habits - Film and Sport Stars

Steven Spielberg

  • Favourite food: Spielberg loves McAloon's chicken pot pie. Capshaw loves her jalapeno relish.
  • Food quirk: Spielberg won't eat anything too spicy and they always choose organic. "They eat small portions of almost anything they want," McAloon says.
  • Biggest indulgence: They both love the "blondies".
Interview by Chef Kate McAloon

Arnold Schwarzenegger

Arnold Schwarzenegger was a firm believer in having a strong diet. He avoided bad junk food and focused mainly on eating high quality foods and nutrients  Arnold would do a calorie cycling in which he would eat a lot of calories some days and restrict calories on other days. Arnold number 1 rule was to have at least  1g/lb of protein for bodybuilders and at least 0.5g/lb for an average person.
  • In Arnold’s view, body and muscle does not come overnight. It needs all the 4 principles that need to be followed everyday: proper training, workout routine, diet plan and mental approach.
  • Arnold Schwarzenegger always goes for natural food in his daily diet, rather than eating processed food. He said that natural food are more nutritious and easy to digest.
  • Arnold Schwarzenegger ate small protein diet after every 3 hours. These small diets were contain 25-30 grams of protein.
  • Arnold use to mix his heavy calorie and light calorie diets so as to make sure that his digestive metabolism should work fine.
  • Arnold use to eat whole eggs, meat and large amount of milk products during his body building process days.
  • Arnold’s daily protein diet contains at least one glass of protein shake.
  • Arnold Schwarzenegger in a interview said that “the most important thing is a sound sleep of 8 hours to get a healthy body”. He followed it too. Brain and body need time to rest.
  • Arnold use to follow his fitness regime only 4 days a week. He said that “rest is needed to repair the muscles after workout”.
  • Arnold Schwarzenegger use to eat carbs after his workout.
  • Arnold use to take beef and pork as substitute to fish and chicken.

Organic foods

Organic foods are foods that are produced using methods of organic farming – that do not involve modern synthetic inputs such as synthetic pesticides and chemical fertilizers. Organic foods are also not processed using irradiation, industrial solvents, or chemical food additives. The organic farming movement arose in the 1940s in response to the industrialization of agriculture known as the Green Revolution. Organic food production is a heavily regulated industry, distinct from private gardening. Currently, the European Union, the United States, Canada, Japan, India and many other countries require producers to obtain special certification in order to market food as organic within their borders. In the context of these regulations, organic food is food produced in a way that complies with organic standards set by national governments and international organizations.


Benefits of the Organic Foods

1. Stringent Standards

The “Organic” certification you see on a product means that it has been grown, processed and handled according to strict guidelines and procedures – at the highest level it means it contains no toxic chemicals. The Indian Organic Certification of Agriculture, Government of India set standards for the production, processing and certification of organic food.

2. Free of Genetic Modification

Organic food cannot be grown using genetically engineered seeds. Why would a seed be genetically altered? Our most common crops – corn, soy, cotton and canola – are often sprayed with heavy doses of pesticides that would otherwise even be damaging to the crops if their genetic structure had not been engineered to withstand these chemical substances.

3. Better for the Soil

Organic farming returns nourishment to the soil, which in turn creates better conditions for crops to thrive during droughts. Healthy soil acts much like a sponge and filter, so it helps to clean the water passing through it. Organically treated soil also traps carbon – and less of it in our atmosphere means fewer effects from climate change.

4. Better for the Water

Organic food is grown without chemical fertilizers or pesticides, which can be leached from the soil and end up in water supplies.

5. Innovative Research

Mostly at their own expense, organic produce growers have paved the way with innovative research that has created ways to reduce our dependence on pesticides and chemical fertilizers – both often byproducts of fossil fuels. They also have led the way in developing more energy efficient ways of farming.

6. Increases Biodiversity

For decades now, organic farmers have been collecting and preserving seeds – as well as reintroducing rare or unusual varieties of fruits and vegetables. It is mostly thanks to organic farmers that a large selection of heirloom tomatoes has become a common occurrence in grocery stores.

7. Increases Consumer Choices

Thanks to organic farmers, nearly every food category offers an organic alternative. That has even extended into textiles. You can now sleep on sheets and wear clothes made of organic cotton.

8. Harmonious with Nature

The organic philosophy of growing believes that wildlife is integral to a farm. Organic farms do not displace wildlife – they embrace it.

9. Protects Family Farms and Rural Communities

As U.S. farm production continues to consolidate, small family farms are in danger of disappearing. With its higher profit margins, organic farming may be one way for family-owned farms to thrive – and in turn, revive dying rural communities.

10. Fresher, Better Tasting

There’s no argument that fresh food tastes better. Organic food often is fresher because is more perishable and has a shorter shelf life.

11. Part of Your Community

Because organic food contains no preservatives and must be consumed quickly, it often is sold to grocery stores nearby. Chances are, if you eat an organic vegetable or fruit, you wouldn’t have to travel far to visit where it was grown.

12. Sustainable Seafood Choices

Visiting organic markets allows you to purchase seafood that is still abundant and fished or farmed in environmentally friendly ways.

13. Safer and More Humane Animal Products.

Organically raised animals are not fed animal byproducts, or given antibiotics and growth hormones. And to increase their health, they’re given more room to move as well as access to a natural outside environment. Crowded living conditions are a leading cause of animal sickness and suffering.
Courtesy: ECOSCRAPS

Eating Healthy Foods

Your body needs the right vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients to stay healthy. A healthy diet means that you are eating:
  • Vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and fat-free or low-fat milk products
  • Seafood, poultry, lean meats, eggs, beans, peas, seeds, and nuts
Limit foods high in:
  • Cholesterol, sodium (salt), and added sugars
  • Trans fats – Trans fats may be in foods like cakes, cookies, stick margarines, and fried foods.
  • Saturated fats – These fats come from animal products like cheese, fatty meats, whole milk, and butter.
  • Refined grains – Food products with refined grains include white bread, noodles, white rice, and flour tortillas.

Courtesy: Food Pyramid 

Useful Resources

There are many organizations that offer credible and practical resources on physical activity. Use these resources for ideas on how to incorporate activity into your daily life.

Publications

Visit our publications page of Journal of Nutrition Research, where a special section on Fitness, Sports and Nutrition.

Symposiums and conferences
Fitness, Sports and Nutrition, a core group of IAPEN and its partners work together to share information at events such as conferences and symposiums. Visit our upcoming events, visit our seminars and events page.

Government bodies or departments

Sports Authority of India

World Health Organization

Ministry of Youth Affairs & Sports

Fact sheets, toolkits and further reading

Nutrition facts and calories in food tools

Healthy recipes

The Benefits of Physical Activity

Regular physical activity is one of the most important things you can do for your health. It can help:
  • Control your weight
  • Reduce your risk of cardiovascular disease
  • Reduce your risk for type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome
  • Reduce your risk of some cancers
  • Strengthen your bones and muscles
  • Improve your mental health and mood
  • Improve your ability to do daily activities and prevent falls, if you're an older adult
  • Increase your chances of living longer
If you're not sure about becoming active or boosting your level of physical activity because you're afraid of getting hurt, the good news is that moderate-intensity aerobic activity, like brisk walking, is generally safe for most people.

Start slowly. Cardiac events, such as a heart attack, are rare during physical activity. But the risk does go up when you suddenly become much more active than usual. For example, you can put yourself at risk if you don't usually get much physical activity and then all of a sudden do vigorous-intensity aerobic activity, like shoveling snow. That's why it's important to start slowly and gradually increase your level of activity.

If you have a chronic health condition such as arthritis, diabetes, or heart disease, talk with your doctor to find out if your condition limits, in any way, your ability to be active. Then, work with your doctor to come up with a physical activity plan that matches your abilities. If your condition stops you from meeting the minimum Guidelines, try to do as much as you can. What's important is that you avoid being inactive. Even 60 minutes a week of moderate-intensity aerobic activity is good for you.

The bottom line is - the health benefits of physical activity far outweigh the risks of getting hurt.
If you want to know more about how physical activity improves your health, the section below gives more detail on what research studies have found.

Control Your Weight

Looking to get to or stay at a healthy weight? Both diet and physical activity play a critical role in controlling your weight. You gain weight when the calories you burn, including those burned during physical activity, are less than the calories you eat or drink. For more information see our section on balancing calories. When it comes to weight management, people vary greatly in how much physical activity they need. You may need to be more active than others to achieve or maintain a healthy weight.

To maintain your weight: Work your way up to 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity, 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity, or an equivalent mix of the two each week. Strong scientific evidence shows that physical activity can help you maintain your weight over time. However, the exact amount of physical activity needed to do this is not clear since it varies greatly from person to person. It's possible that you may need to do more than the equivalent of 150 minutes of moderate-intensity activity a week to maintain your weight.

To lose weight and keep it off: You will need a high amount of physical activity unless you also adjust your diet and reduce the amount of calories you're eating and drinking. Getting to and staying at a healthy weight requires both regular physical activity and a healthy eating plan. The CDC has some great tools and information about nutrition, physical activity and weight loss. 

Reduce Your Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

Heart disease and stroke are two of the leading causes of death in the United States. But following the Guidelines and getting at least 150 minutes a week (2 hours and 30 minutes) of moderate-intensity aerobic activity can put you at a lower risk for these diseases. You can reduce your risk even further with more physical activity. Regular physical activity can also lower your blood pressure and improve your cholesterol levels.

Reduce your risk of Type 2 Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome

Regular physical activity can reduce your risk of developing type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a condition in which you have some combination of too much fat around the waist, high blood pressure, low HDL cholesterol, high triglycerides, or high blood sugar. Research shows that lower rates of these conditions are seen with 120 to 150 minutes (2 hours to 2 hours and 30 minutes) a week of at least moderate-intensity aerobic activity. And the more physical activity you do, the lower your risk will be.

Reduce Your Risk of Some Cancers

Being physically active lowers your risk for two types of cancer: colon and breast. Research shows that:
  • Physically active people have a lower risk of colon cancer than do people who are not active.
  • Physically active women have a lower risk of breast cancer than do people who are not active.
Reduce your risk of endometrial and lung cancer. Although the research is not yet final, some findings suggest that your risk of endometrial cancer and lung cancer may be lower if you get regular physical activity compared to people who are not active. 
Improve your quality of life. If you are a cancer survivor, research shows that getting regular physical activity not only helps give you a better quality of life, but also improves your physical fitness.

Strengthen Your Bones and Muscles

As you age, it's important to protect your bones, joints and muscles. Not only do they support your body and help you move, but keeping bones, joints and muscles healthy can help ensure that you're able to do your daily activities and be physically active.  Research shows that doing aerobic, muscle-strengthening and bone-strengthening physical activity of at least a moderately-intense level can slow the loss of bone density that comes with age.

Hip fracture is a serious health condition that can have life-changing negative effects, especially if you're an older adult.But research shows that people who do 120 to 300 minutes of at least moderate-intensity aerobic activity each week have a lower risk of hip fracture.

Regular physical activity helps with arthritis and other conditions affecting the joints. If you have arthritis, research shows that doing 130 to 150 (2 hours and 10 minutes to 2 hours and 30 minutes) a week of moderate-intensity, low-impact aerobic activity can not only improve your ability to manage pain and do everyday tasks, but it can also make your quality of life better.

Build strong, healthy muscles. Muscle-strengthening activities can help you increase or maintain your muscle mass and strength. Slowly increasing the amount of weight and number of repetitions you do will give you even more benefits, no matter your age.

Improve Your Mental Health and Mood

Regular physical activity can help keep your thinking, learning, and judgment skills sharp as you age. It can also reduce your risk of depression and may help you sleep better. Research has shown that doing aerobic or a mix of aerobic and muscle-strengthening activities 3 to 5 times a week for 30 to 60 minutes can give you these mental health benefits. Some scientific evidence has also shown that even lower levels of physical activity can be beneficial.

Improve Your Ability to do Daily Activities and Prevent Falls

A functional limitation is a loss of the ability to do everyday activities such as climbing stairs, grocery shopping, or playing with your grandchildren.
How does this relate to physical activity? If you're a physically active middle-aged or older adult, you have a lower risk of functional limitations than people who are inactive
Already have trouble doing some of your everyday activities? Aerobic and muscle-strengthening activities can help improve your ability to do these types of tasks.
Are you an older adult who is at risk for falls? Research shows that doing balance and muscle-strengthening activities each week along with moderate-intensity aerobic activity, like brisk walking, can help reduce your risk of falling.

Increase Your Chances of Living Longer

Science shows that physical activity can reduce your risk of dying early from the leading causes of death, like heart disease and some cancers. This is remarkable in two ways:
  1. Only a few lifestyle choices have as large an impact on your health as physical activity. People who are physically active for about 7 hours a week have a 40 percent lower risk of dying early than those who are active for less than 30 minutes a week. 
  2. You don't have to do high amounts of activity or vigorous-intensity activity to reduce your risk of premature death.  You can put yourself at lower risk of dying early by doing at least 150 minutes a week of moderate-intensity aerobic activity.
Everyone can gain the health benefits of physical activity - age, ethnicity, shape or size do not matter.

WHO Recommendations on Physical Activity For Health

World Health Organization (WHO), developed the "Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health" with the overall aim of providing national and regional level policy makers with guidance on the dose-response relationship between the frequency, duration, intensity, type and total amount of physical activity needed for all age groups.  

Recommended levels of physical activity for children aged 5 - 17 years

For children and young people, physical activity includes play, games, sports, transportation, chores, recreation, physical education, or planned exercise, in the context of family, school, and community activities.
In order to improve cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness, bone health, and cardiovascular and metabolic health biomarkers:
  • Children and youth aged 5–17 should accumulate at least 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
  • Amounts of physical activity greater than 60 minutes provide additional health benefits.
  • Most of the daily physical activity should be aerobic. Vigorous-intensity activities should be incorporated, including those that strengthen muscle and bone*, at least 3 times per week.
The scientific evidence available for the age group 5–17 years supports the overall conclusion that physical activity provides fundamental health benefits for children and youth. Appropriate levels of physical activity contribute to the development of:
• healthy musculoskeletal tissues (i.e. bones, muscles and joints);
• healthy cardiovascular system (i.e. heart and lungs);
• neuromuscular awareness (i.e. coordination and movement control); and
• It also facilitates maintenance of a healthy body weight.
Moreover, physical activity has been associated with psychological benefits in young people by: improving their control over symptomps of anxiety and depression; and assisting in social development by providing opportunities for self-expression,building self-confidence, social interaction and integration.
Recommended levels of physical activity for adults aged 18 - 64 years
In adults aged 18–64, physical activity includes leisure time physical activity (for example: walking, dancing, gardening, hiking, swimming), transportation (e.g. walking or cycling), occupational (i.e. work), household chores, play, games, sports or planned exercise, in the context of daily, family, and community activities. In order to improve cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness, bone health, reduce the risk of NCDs and depression:
  • Adults aged 18–64 should do at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity throughout the week or do at least 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity throughout the week or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity.
  • Aerobic activity should be performed in bouts of at least 10 minutes duration.
  • For additional health benefits, adults should increase their moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity to 300 minutes per week, or engage in 150 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity per week, or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity.
  • Muscle-strengthening activities should be done involving major muscle groups on 2 or more days a week.
Recommended levels of physical activity for adults aged 65 and above
In adults aged 65 years and above, physical activity includes leisure time physical activity (for example: walking, dancing, gardening, hiking, swimming), transportation (e.g. walking or cycling), occupational (if the individual is still engaged in work), household chores, play, games, sports or planned exercise, in the context of daily, family, and community activities.
In order to improve cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness, bone and functional health, reduce the risk of NCDs, depression and cognitive decline:
  • Older adults should do at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity throughout the week or do at least 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity throughout the week or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity.
  • Aerobic activity should be performed in bouts of at least 10 minutes duration.
  • For additional health benefits, older adults should increase their moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity to 300 minutes per week, or engage in 150 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity per week, or an equivalent combination of moderate-and vigorous-intensity activity.
  • Older adults, with poor mobility, should perform physical activity to enhance balance and prevent falls on 3 or more days per week.
  • Muscle-strengthening activities, involving major muscle groups, should be done on 2 or more days a week.
  • When older adults cannot do the recommended amounts of physical activity due to health conditions, they should be as physically active as their abilities and conditions allow.

Physical activity for all

These recommendations are relevant to all healthy adults aged 18–64 years unless specific medical conditions indicate to the contrary. They are applicable for all adults irrespective of gender, race, ethnicity or income level. They also apply to individuals in this age range with chronic noncommunicable conditions not related to mobility such as hypertension or diabetes.
These recommendations can be valid for adults with disabilities. However adjustments for each individual based on their exercise capacity and specific health risks or limitations may be needed.
There are multiple ways of accumulating the total of 150 minutes per week. The concept of accumulation refers to meeting the goal of 150 minutes per week by performing activities in multiple shorter bouts, of at least 10 minutes each, spread throughout the week then adding together the time spent during each of these bouts: e.g. 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity 5 times per week.
Pregnant, postpartum women and persons with cardiac events may need to take extra precautions and seek medical advice before striving to achieve the recommended levels of physical activity for this age group.
Inactive adults or adults with disease limitations will have added health benefits if moving from the category of “no activity” to “some levels” of activity. Adults who currently do not meet the recommendations for physical activity should aim to increase duration, frequency and finally intensity as a target to achieving them.

Welcome to FSN, A core group of IAPEN

The Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (IAPEN) is an organization in the field of parenteral and enteral nutrition and promote...